The Wild Garden – a breath of fresh, if not old, air

The Wild Garden was sent to me by Timberpress to review along with Dear Christo. The latter got my initial interest and The Wild Garden sat on the side as I anticipated that it would be difficult to read given that it was written originally in 1870 by William Robinson and sometimes the language from this period can be, in my opinion, hard work.  However, I was thrilled to find this was not the case and I was soon totally absorbed in Robinson’s ideas which seemed to help crystallise some of the thoughts about gardens, and my garden in particular, that I have recently been having.

The Wild Garden went through 7 editions during Robinson’s lifetime and this version is a reprint of the 5th edition with the addition of a commentary by Rick Darke to set it in a 21st century context.  I did struggle with this bit of the book.  The Introduction was good as it told me who Robinson was and how the book originally came about, but then it goes on to sort of precise each chapter of The Wild Garden and give examples of how this idea or that would work now.  I found the writing a little forced and stilted and it took some determination on my part to persist.  Also, and this is probably a failing of mine, the majority of the photographs used to illustrate this part of the book were of locations in the US which made it very difficult for me to relate to.  However, this is an understandable approach as Darke is American and I think this was the original intended market.

But then I got to Robinson’s book itself.  The book has been reproduced with the original engravings and is a delight.  Robinson’s purpose was to move gardeners away from the Victorian obsession with huge bedding displays of tender plants; he expresses concern that the fashion had got to such an extent that in some large gardens not a single hardy flower can be found.  At the time of writing Robinson was becoming involved in the Arts and Crafts movement whose ethics, as Darke explains, “was linking beauty with utility and promoting an appreciation of local materials and patterns”.  The movement had arisen as a reaction to the increasing industrialisation in Britain which was slowly destroying much of the pastoral  beauty of the countryside.

Throughout the book Robinson rails against the bedding style but interestingly doesn’t seem to advocate bringing his wild planting right up to the house appreciating that the owners of grand houses would want some form of formality to look at from their terrace.  He explains that his purpose is not to get rid of all formality near the house but to “restore to its true use the flower-garden, now subjected to two tearings up a year…”  He encourages the use of what we would now call herbaceous borders full of interesting and beautiful plants. He frequently criticises horticultural practices at the time including the annual clear of borders in the autumn and the need to dig over borders before winter and thereby leaving the soil to erosion from wind and rain, “When winter is once come, almost every gardener, with the best intentions, prepares to make war upon the roots of everything in his shrubbery.”

So how does Robinson see the Wild Garden evolving? He breaks the book down into a number of chapters each of which deals with a plant group.   There is a chapter on hardy bulbs planted in grass; on the forget me not family; on climbers for trees and bushes; on shrubbery, plantation and wood as just a few examples. In each chapter he provides numerous plants that will work in the location he is describing and how they can be cultivated.  He is generous with his advice and it is clear that he is keen to share and encourage others to his thinking without dictating.

I found his writing to be quite humorous.  In the chapter on Climbers he derides the practice of growing these plants up walls as they are “rarely seen to advantage, owing to their being stiffly training against walls, and many of them have gone out of cultivation for this reason.”   I think Robinson sees the Victorian approach to horticulture as one of demanding perfection, of every plant looking pristine and neat and if possible of having plants that others don’t have.  In the first edition he quotes from Sydney Smith (1771-1845) who was an acclaimed moral philosopher.  Smith describes how he stayed at a house with beautiful and formal gardens which were said to be “laid out with consummate taste”.  To start with he enjoyed his visit and the gardens as they appeared “so much better than Nature”.  However, “In three days’ time I was tired to death; a thistle, a heap of dead bushes, anything that wore the appearance of accident and want of intention was quite a relief.”  I found this fascinating as it is a feeling I have felt when visiting some of the gardens of the big houses. I find myself staring through the topiary and bedding schemes looking for something else, something real, something wonderful, something surprising, something magical, something a little wild.

The other attitude which came through in the book which really spoke to me and which relates to a debate that is often promoted now, particularly in some gardening blogs, is the idea of the garden as art.  I have written about this  myself and struggled to come to a conclusion but I found Robinson’s simple response as a breath of fresh air which brought everything together for me.  Robinson says that as gardeners we have the luxury of being able to choose from plants from across the world and that unlike nature we can tweak the environment to make them suitable for plants where none would normally grow.  But most importantly, for me, he says: “Foolish old ‘laws’ laid down by landscape gardeners perpetuate the notion that a garden is a ‘work of art, and therefore we must not attempt in it to imitate nature!’ true gardening differing from all other arts in this that it gives us living things themselves, and not merely representations of them in paint or stone or wood.” This makes so much sense to me plants are living and breathing things which grow, fade and die and as such a garden cannot be a work of art unless you are only seeing it for a brief moment in time.  I think gardens transcend the idea of art, we can manipulate, tweak and create but at the end of the day whatever our desire, our plan, our  scheme, our aspiration we are merely custodians of that piece of soil and Mother Nature will do as she wishes, when she wishes so we should do our tweaking and our planning but then we should sit back and see what happens and enjoy it for what it is.

I think this is the essence of what Robinson was saying. When he refers to The Wild Garden, he is not talking about turning your garden over to the countryside or letting it become a wilderness.   Rather, he is suggesting that we loosen our control,  that we stop gardening so intensively, that we recognise the beauty of the hardy plant world and reduce our  reliance on tender  exotics.  If we do this we will have beauty to look at for more of the year and we will  enjoy our  green spaces more as, unlike Sydney Smith, we will not be desperate for some respite from the “consummate taste” of bedding schemes etc.

I found myself nodding along with this book and as Darke says it is a book that begs to be dipped into and read and re-read.  The fact that its message is as relevant today as it was in 1870 is interesting.  I think we have moved a long way from the position Robinson was confronted with but we have other issues to address.  I think we can take the book as encouragement to work with the environment we are in, to choose plants that are right for it and to let them grow as they wish.

I do believe that this is the way forward and the ethics of the book will be key to my thinking about my garden, and others in the future  I would thoroughly recommend it to anyone who is interested, even mildly,  in this approach to gardening and even if you aren’t you might discover that Robinson challenges your thinking.

9 Comments on “The Wild Garden – a breath of fresh, if not old, air

  1. Helen, this is an interesting and informed review.
    (I may have to add it to my wish list!)
    It had obviously struck a chord with you around the whole art/garden debate and will help you move forward in your own gardens design/planting.
    K

  2. Such a thoughtful and thought-provoking post Helen, a great way to start my day. So much of what you describe of Robinson’s philosophy chimes with what I have been feeling myself. It also echoes Carol Klein’s sentiments expressed at the end of her wonderful “Life in a Cottage Garden” TV series. I’d saved the last episode until last night, and she talked about how she began gardening there in the belief that she would be in control, but that nowadays she realises that the garden itself tells her what it needs, and although she orchestrates, tweeks, manages, improves even, the whole philosophy seemed to be one of stewardship rather than control and ownership, if that makes sense.

    I am learning more and more that I can always find beautiful plants from around the world that will enjoy the conditions in my own garden and thrive, and if one thing fails or I fall in love with something that requires other than what I have to offer, there are myriad other hardy and beautiful plants that will fill the space with beauty and attract and nurture wildlife too. I may have some interesting negotiations ahead with FIL though, who rather likes bare earth around plants and neatly, even tightly, pruned shrubs. I’ve won the “no we don’t cut back everything to ground level in Autumn” battle, but I suspect he might rather like a little topiary to play with.

  3. Pingback: Tweets that mention The Wild Garden – a breath of fresh, if not old, air | The Patient Gardener’s Weblog -- Topsy.com

  4. A beautiful well written review, I read the book when it first came out. I really think you have captured this book. I do agree with you about the introduction – you have inspired me to read Robinson’s part of the book again. I think I need to re-read this without the introduction which felt like a different book. I think our idea of a ‘wild garden’ is very different from Robinson’s but once you realise this, the book becomes very relevant to our gardens today.

    Best wishes Sylvia

  5. This was one of the first books I read on gardening, and it had an incredible resonance with and influence on me. I’d always been drawn to wild gardens, and that is the style that I hope to achieve in my own garden. That said, I must disagree with Robinson about the garden as art. I think his definition of “art” is too narrow, although it may have been apt at the time he wrote it. Current conceptions of “art” are very broad (consider, for example, performance art). There are sculptures that are kinetic, and art works that require viewer interaction. So why shouldn’t a garden, which is the product of the imagination and effort of a person, not be a work of art that ebbs and flows with the seasons and changes with the life of plants?

  6. Pingback: My Thoughts – Art VERSUS Nature or Art AND Nature « Creating my own garden of the Hesperides

  7. This is one of those gardening classics that I have always intended to read but have never done so. Your thoughtful review will prompt me to seek it out as soon as I have more time for reading.

  8. Hey would you mind letting me know which hosting company youre utilizing? Ive loaded your blog in 3 different browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good hosting provider at a honest price? Thanks, I appreciate it!

Please feel free to leave comments as its always lovely to get feedback. I try to respond to comments as much as possible but sometimes life and work get in the way but I will do my best to respond especially if your comment is a question.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: